seiche n : a wave on the surface of a lake or landlocked bay; caused by atmospheric or seismic disturbances
- Rhymes: -eɪʃ
Etymology 1From sepia, from .
Etymology 2Of uncertain origin.
- In the context of "Swiss French": seiche
A seiche (pronounced /seɪʃ/, or approximately saysh) is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water. Seiches and seiche-related phenomena have been observed on lakes, reservoirs, bays and seas. The key requirement for formation of a seiche is that the body of water be at least partially bounded, allowing natural phenomena to form a standing wave.
The term was first promoted by the Swiss hydrologist François-Alphonse Forel in 1890, who had observed the effect in Lake Geneva, Switzerland. The word originates in a Swiss French dialect word that means "to sway back and forth", which had apparently long been used in the region to describe oscillations in alpine lakes.
Causes and nature of seichesSeiches are often imperceptible to the naked eye, and observers in boats on the surface may not notice that a seiche is occurring due to the extremely long wavelengths. The effect is caused by resonances in a body of water that has been disturbed by one or more of a number of factors, most often meteorological effects (wind and atmospheric pressure variations), seismic activity or by tsunamis. Gravity always seeks to restore the horizontal surface of a body of liquid water, as this represents the configuration in which the water is in hydrostatic equilibrium. Vertical harmonic motion results, producing an impulse that travels the length of the basin at a velocity that depends on the depth of the water. The impulse is reflected back from the end of the basin, generating interference. Repeated reflections produce standing waves with one or more nodes, or points, that experience no vertical motion. The frequency of the oscillation is determined by the size of the basin, its depth and contours, and the water temperature. The length of the lake is an exact multiple of the distance between nodes.
The longest natural period for a seiche in an enclosed rectangular body of water is usually represented by the Merian formula:
- \mbox(T) = \frac
Higher order harmonics are also observed. The period of the second harmonic will be half the natural period, the period of the third harmonic will be a third of the natural period, and so forth.
Seiches around the worldSeiches have been observed on both lakes and seas. The key requirement is that the body of water be partially constrained to allow formation of standing waves. Regularity of geometry is not required, even harbors with exceedingly irregular shapes are routinely observed to oscillate with very stable frequencies.
Lake seichesSmall rhythmic seiches are almost always present on larger lakes. On the North American Great Lakes, seiche is often called slosh. It is always present, but is usually unnoticeable, except during periods of unusual calm. Harbours, bays, and estuaries are often prone to small seiches with amplitudes of a few centimeters and periods of a few minutes. Seiches can also form in semi-enclosed seas; the North Sea often experiences a lengthwise seiche with a period of about 36 hours.
The National Weather Service issues low water advisories for portions of the Great Lakes when seiches of 2 feet or greater are likely to occur. Lake Erie is particularly prone to wind-caused seiches because of its shallowness and elongation. These can lead to extreme seiches of up to 5 m (16 feet) between the ends of the lake. The effect is similar to a storm surge like that caused by hurricanes along ocean coasts, but the seiche effect can cause oscillation back and forth across the lake for some time. In 1954, Hurricane Hazel piled up water along the northwestern Lake Ontario shoreline near Toronto, causing extensive flooding, and established a seiche that subsequently caused flooding along the south shore.
Lake seiches can occur very quickly: on July 13, 1995, a big seiche on Lake Superior caused the water level to fall and then rise again by three feet (one meter) within fifteen minutes, leaving some boats hanging from the docks on their mooring lines when the water retreated. On Lake Michigan, eight fishermen were swept away and drowned when a 10-foot seiche hit the Chicago waterfront on June 26, 1954.
Lakes in seismically active areas, such as Lake Tahoe in California/Nevada, are significantly at risk from seiches. Geological evidence indicates that the shores of Lake Tahoe may have been hit by seiches and tsunamis as much as 10 m (33 feet) high in prehistoric times, and local researchers have called for the risk to be factored into emergency plans for the region.
Earthquake-generated seiches can be observed thousands of miles away from the epicentre of a quake. Swimming pools are especially prone to seiches caused by earthquakes, as the ground tremors often match the resonant frequencies of small bodies of water. The 1994 Northridge earthquake in California caused swimming pools to overflow across southern California. The massive Good Friday Earthquake that hit Alaska in 1964 caused seiches in swimming pools as far away as Puerto Rico. The earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 caused seiches in canals 2,000 miles (3,000 km) away in Scotland and Sweden. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake caused seiches in standing water bodies in many Indian states as well as in Bangladesh, Nepal and northern Thailand. Seiches were again observed in Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal in India as well as in many locations in Bangladesh during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake . The 1950 Chayu-Upper Assam earthquake is known to have generated seiches as far as Norway and southern England. Other earthquakes in the Indian sub-continent known to have generated seiches include the 1803 Kumaon-Barahat, 1819 Allah Bund, 1842 Central Bengal, 1905 Kangra, 1930 Dhubri, 1934 Nepal-Bihar, 2001 Bhuj, 2005 Nias, 2005 Teresa Island earthquakes.
Sea and bay seichesSeiches have been observed in seas such as the Adriatic Sea and the Baltic Sea, resulting in flooding of Venice and St. Petersburg respectively. The latter is constructed on drained marshlands at the mouth of the Neva river. Seiche-induced flooding is common along the Neva river in the autumn. The seiche is driven by a low pressure region in the North Atlantic moving onshore, giving rise to cyclonic lows on the Baltic Sea. The low pressure of the cyclone draws greater-than-normal quantities of water into the virtually land-locked Baltic. As the cyclone continues inland, long, low-frequency seiche waves with wavelengths up to several hundred kilometers are established in the Baltic. When the waves reach the narrow and shallow Neva Bay, they become much higher - ultimately flooding the Neva embankments. Similar phenomena are observed at Venice, resulting in the MOSE Project, a system of 79 mobile barriers designed to protect the three entrances to the Venetian Lagoon.
Seiches can also be induced by tsunami, a wave train (series of waves) generated in a body of water by a pulsating or abrupt disturbance that vertically displaces the water column. On occasion, tsunamis can produce seiches as a result of local geographic peculiarities. For instance, the tsunami that hit Hawaii in 1946 had a fifteen-minute interval between wave fronts. The natural resonant period of Hilo Bay is about thirty minutes. That meant that every second wave was in phase with the motion of Hilo Bay, creating a seiche in the bay. As a result, Hilo suffered worse damage than any other place in Hawaii, with the tsunami/seiche reaching a height of 14 m and killing 159 inhabitants. Seiche waves may continue for several days after a tsunami.
Underwater (internal) wavesAlthough the bulk of the technical literature addresses surface seiches which are most readily observed, seiches are also observed beneath the lake surface acting along the thermocline in constrained bodies of water.
Engineering for seiche protectionEngineers consider seiche phenomena in the design of flood protection works (e.g., Saint Petersburg Dam), reservoirs and dams (e.g., Grand Coulee Dam), potable water storage basins, harbours and even spent nuclear fuel storage basins.
Example of a low water advisory from the U.S. National Weather Service
MARINE WEATHER STATEMENT NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DETROIT/PONTIAC MI 705 AM EST WED JAN 9 2008
LEZ444-092015- /X.EXT.KDTX.LO.Y.0002.000000T0000Z-080109T2100Z/ MICHIGAN WATERS OF LAKE ERIE FROM DETROIT RIVER TO NORTH CAPE MI- 705 AM EST WED JAN 9 2008
...LOW WATER ADVISORY NOW IN EFFECT UNTIL 4 PM EST THIS AFTERNOON...
A LOW WATER ADVISORY REMAINS IN EFFECT UNTIL 4 PM EST THIS AFTERNOON.
WESTERLY GALES TO 35 KNOTS WILL CAUSE LOW WATER LEVEL IN WESTERN LAKE ERIE TODAY. WINDS WILL SLOWLY DIMINISH DURING THE AFTERNOON AND THE WATER LEVEL WILL THEN RECOVER TO THE RECENT AVERAGE BY LATE IN THE DAY.
AT 7 AM...THE WATER LEVEL AT TOLEDO WAS 1 INCH ABOVE CHART DATUM...OR ABOUT 14 INCHES ABOVE THE CRITICAL MARK FOR SAFE NAVIGATION. THE LEVEL IS EXPECTED TO QUICKLY FALL BELOW THE CRITICAL MARK DURING THE MORNING AND AS LOW AS 24 INCHES BELOW CHART DATUM BEFORE RISING AGAIN.
A GALE WARNING IS ALSO IN EFFECT TODAY. MASTERS PLANNING NAVIGATION INTO THE WESTERN BASIN OF LAKE ERIE SHOULD CHECK WATER LEVELS WITH THE COAST GUARD.
External links and referencesGeneral:
On aquatic monsters:
References and notes
seiche in German: Seiche
seiche in French: Seiche (hydrodynamique)
seiche in Dutch: Seiche (golf)
seiche in Norwegian: seiche
seiche in Polish: Sejsza
seiche in Portuguese: Seicha
seiche in Finnish: Seiche